NUTRACEUTICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRA-VIRGIN OLIVE OIL
A NATURAL REMEDY FOR AGE-RELATED DISEASE
The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet can be largely ascribed to the nutraceutical properties of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Mono-unsaturated fatty acids and various phenolic compounds, such as oleocanthal, oleuropein aglycon, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, are the main nutraceutical substances of EVOO. These substances have been suggested to have the ability to modulate aging-associated processes. In experimental models, it has been shown that EVOO with high concentrations of polyphenols has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Indeed, it was observed that hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal inhibit the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2) responsible for prostaglandin production; oleuropein aglycon is a radical scavenger that blocks the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.
OLIVE OIL POLYPHENOLS & CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD)
Olive oil polyphenols (HT, oleacein and tyrosol) display important beneficial properties against atherosclerosis & CVD
EFFECTS OF OLIVE OIL POLYPHENOLS
ON ERYTHROCYTE OXIDATIVE DAMAGE
In this work, Pavla - Martins at al studied the capacity of oleacein to protect red blood cells (RBCs) from oxidative injury. The in vitro oxidative stress of RBCs was induced by the water – soluble radical initiator 2,2΄ azobis (2amidinopropane) dihydrochloride and changes were evaluated either by optical microscopy or by the amount of hemolysis. Oleacein was shown to significantly protect RBCs from oxidative damage in a dose – dependent manner. Oleacein had the most powerful effect at 20mM, within the other polyphenols. Even at 3Mm, oleacein still had an importand protective activity. For the first time it was demonstrated that oleacein may play a noteworthy protective role against ROS - induced oxidative injury in human cells since lower doses of this compound were needed to protect RBCs in vitro from oxidative mediated hemolysis.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 May Paiva-Martins F1, Fernandes J, Rocha S, Nascimento H, Vitorino R, Amado F, Borges F, Belo L, Santos-Silva A
OLEOCANTHAL -RICH EXTRA- VIRGIN OLIVE OI
ENHANCES DONEPEZIL EFFECT BY REDUCING AMYLOID-LOAD & RELATED TOXICITY IN A MOUSE MODEL OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
Previous evidence suggested that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is linked to attenuating amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology and improving cognitive function in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse models. In addition, we recently reported the beneficial effect of oleocanthal, a phenolic compound in EVOO, against AD pathology. Currently, medications available to target AD pathology are limited. Donepezil is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor approved for use for all AD stages. Donepezil has been reported to have limited Aβ-targeting mechanisms beside its acetylcholine esterase inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of EVOO rich with oleocanthal (hereafter EVOO) as a medical food on enhancing the effect of donepezil on attenuating Aβ load and related toxicity in 5xFAD mouse model of AD. Our results showed that EVOO consumption in combination with donepezil significantly reduced Aβ load and related pathological changes. Reduced Aβ load could be explained, at least in part, by enhancing Aβ clearance pathways including blood-brain barrier (BBB) clearance and enzymatic degradation, and shifting amyloid precursor protein processing toward the nonamyloidogenic pathway. Furthermore, EVOO combination with donepezil up-regulated synaptic proteins, enhanced BBB tightness and reduced neuroinflammation associated with Aβ pathology. In conclusion, EVOO consumption as a medical food combined with donepezil offers an effective therapeutic approach by enhancing the noncholinergic mechanisms of donepezil and by providing additional mechanisms to attenuate Aβ-related pathology in AD patients.
J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Dec 27;55:113-123. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.12.006
OLEOCANTHAL EXERTS ANTITUMOR EFFECTS
ON HUMAN LIVER & COLON CANCER CELLS THROUGH ROS GENERATION
Oleocanthal (OC) shows an anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity, which guided Cusimano et al to study the anticancer effects of OC in hepatocellular (HCC) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Several cell lines were used at the study that were treaded with OC and estimated the cell viability and apoptosis. OC was more effective comparing with other anti-inflammatory agents like ibuprofen, indomethacin and nimesulide , and induced cell growth inhibition . Moreover, experiments with OC showed inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction. Finally, OC showed no toxic effect on normal hepatocytes. All this lead to the conclusion, that OC is a potent agent against in HCC and CRC. These findings provide a strong support of the potential use of extra virgin olive oil as chemotherapeutic.
Cusimano A1, Balasus D1, Azzolina A1, Augello G1, Emma MR1, Di Sano C1, Gramignoli R2, Strom SC2, McCubrey JA3, Montalto G1, Cervello M1 Int J Oncol. 2017 Aug;51(2):533-544
THE OLIVE OIL PHENOLIC OLEOCANTHAL
MODULATES ESTROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN LUMINAL BREAST CANCER IN VITRO & IN VIVO & SYNERGIZES WITH TAMOXIFEN TREATMENT
Eur J Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 5;810:100-111. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.06.019. Epub 2017 Jun 15 / Ayoub NM1, Siddique AB2, Ebrahim HY2, Mohyeldin MM2, El Sayed KA2
OLEACEIN MAY INHIBIT DESTABILIZATION
OF CAROTID PLAQUES FROM HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS IMPACT ON HIGH MOBILITY GROUP PROTEIN-1
This aim this study was to investigate a potential role of oleacein in attenuation of carotid plague destabilization ex vivo. Oleacein at the concentrations of 10 and 20 µM significantly (P < 0.001) decreased secretion of HMGB1 (up 90%), MMP-9 (up to 80% proteins, MMP -9 (up to 80%) and TF protein (more than 90%) from the treated plague, as compared to control. At the same time IL-10 and HO -1 release increased by more than 80% (P < 0.001). Those results indicate that oleacein possess ability to attenuate the destabilization of carotid plague and could be potentially useful in the reduction of ischemic stroke risk.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Aug 15;32:68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.06.004. Epub 2017 Jun 13 / Filipek A1, Czerwińska ME1, Kiss AK1, Polański JA2, Naruszewicz M3